A class is used in object-oriented programming to describe one or more objects. It serves as a template for creating, or instantiating, specific objects within a program. While each object is created from a single class, one class can be used to instantiate multiple objects.
Several programming languages support classes, including Java, C++, Objective C, and PHP 5 and later. While the syntax of a class definition varies between programming languages, classes serve the same purpose in each language. All classes may contain variable definitions and methods, or subroutines that can be run by the corresponding object.
Below is an example of a basic Java class definition:
public static void main(String args)
String sampleText = "Hello world!";
The above class, named Sample, includes a single method named main. Within main, the variable sampleText is defined as "Hello world!" The main method invokes the System class from Java's built-in core library, which contains the out.println method. This method is used to print the sample text to the text output window.
Classes are a fundamental part of object-oriented programming. They allow variables and methods to be isolated to specific objects instead of being accessible by all parts of the program. This encapsulation of data protects each class from changes in other parts of the program. By using classes, developers can create structured programs with source code that can be easily modified.
NOTE: While classes are foundational in object-oriented programming, they serve as blueprints, rather than the building blocks of each program. This is because classes must be instantiated as objects in order to be used within a program. Constructors are typically used to create objects from classes, while destructors are used to free up resources used by objects that are no longer needed.